medieval lithuanian surnames

2, h. 7: isbn: The terminology of Lithuanian anthroponymics is used rather loosely; the concept of the terms ' name' vardas, 'surname' pavardë, 'nickname' pravardë (cmp, pravardþiuoti 'to nickname') are not restricted distributively, and pavardë as an opposition to pravardë is often interchanged when used colloquially. Because of such conditions the inventories of the people, compiled as late as the XVI-XVIII centuries, were entering the personal names into the nomenclature by a single name could be substituting for the formal ones. Other can also be used to choose medieval bynames, but it Visos 6. However, such an anthropo-nym and its position just after the first name would be identical with the term of patronym because of its concept and the position, and it would appear as analogy to and under the influence of the Russian tria nomina system. The same names are found everywhere in the Pale of Settlement, but they are most highly concentrated in Lithuania. Cornish Surnames. MIKALAUSKAS Lithuanian A Lithuanian surname. Kysgeylo, etc. In the documents his name is found as The patronyms have had an important role in the original forming of the Lithuanian dua nomina system. He comments: "In the old past, when people had a single name, i.e., were named by a single personal name, that name could have been the only name given by someone as a nickname, therefore, in all the languages the surnames in a great many cases derived from nicknames. In the United Kingdom , the most common last name is Smith. From a medieval spelling variant of Peter. 28. Last names weren’t widely used until after the Norman conquest in 1066, but as the country’s population grew, people found it necessary to be more specific when they were talking about somebody else. Safarewicz, J., "Polskie imiona osobowe pochodzienia Litewskiego", Jæzyk polski, XXX, 1950. (16) The dates and facts given in this section (Vytautas) are taken from LE We have included in this list surname dictionaries that meet To make the rule applicable and proven by the Lithuanian instance, a proper synchronic insight has to be made into the Lithuanian system of the making of the name, of the choosing of the name and of the giving of the name (christening) to a person, and the matter has to be appropriately discussed, if sufficient material can be collected. Most modern studentas-studentë 'student', mokinys-mokinë 'pupil', bëgikas-bëgikë 'runner', ëjikas-ëjikë 'walker', etc. Some of these sources are modern dictionaries of surnames. before Christianity was introduced 1251-1413. #7 - DAVIS: Means "son of DAVID". The first wife of King Vytautas, Queen Ona, of the noble Lithuanian family Sudimantas, was married to him in an Orthodox ceremony in 1370. Jonikas, P., "Asmenvardþiai ir vietovardþiai", Lietuviø Enciklopedija, vol. Jablonskis, K., Lietuviðki þodþiai senosios Lietuvos raðtiniø kalboje, Vilnius, 1941. Medieval Lithuania is seen as a Lithuanian-led, though relatively very tolerant state, ... (or surnames in case of historical figures), he also tries to prove to us the Aryan origin of Albanians (yikes) which makes his book feel even more biased. Tauras, etc. Tik moderninio þmogaus galvosenoje vardas atsieta nuo jo turëtojo. 27 However, every dialect applies its own popular patronymic material and practices the use of two or even three patronymic suffixes for one and the same name, as has been shown above. Thus, so far no convincing argument has been discovered regarding the practice of the Lithuanian giving of a name, in the pre-Christian period. ... A confusing fact and very characteristic of pagan Lithuanian name writing in medieval documents is the name of Prince Vygantas, son of King Algirdas. Morsom — Recorded in the spellings of Morston, Morson and Morsom, this is an English post medieval surname. If those examples are early enough, then they are bynames rather than inherited surnames. During the next two centuries the practice spread to most of the English population. The two-sided case of King Algirdas concerning religion is characteristic and significant. Senovës tautø tikëta, kad vaikui duotas vardas gali veikti jo likimà.. Varde norëta iðkelti naujojo visuomenës nario bûdo ypatybës, branginamos visos vol. paradigmatically in all the cases of the declensions of the patronymic suffixes of the feminine gender: -aitis -aitë; -utis -utë; -ytis -ytë; -ëlis -elë; -us -ë; etc. In the Lithuanian chronicles, however, in accordance with the pagan Lithuanian names of his seven cousins he is known by the name of Vytautas. This name generator will generate 10 surnames, which fit many types of fantasy settings. Todël ið pravardës visose kalbose yra kilæ- labai daug pavardþiø. #8 - GARCIA: Portuguese form of GARCÍA. The interpretation of A. Salys of the pravardë as a personal name given to an individual in an unusual way, however the meaning of the event coincides with the understanding that the personal name held by the individual previously and replaced by the nickname which ultimately and factually becomes a person's only name, then later it becomes his surname or second name. Lietuviø enciklopedija /'Lithuanian Encyclopedia'/, vol. The logic of the problem leads into the argument that the original and proper name of a person in such a case has been changed and replaced by a nickname which remained with a person all his life and consequently it has been taken down into the historical records as the regular name of the person. 3. The typical Lithuanian anthroponyms of the monothematic structure: Aldas, Aldonas, Alkis, Arûnas, Audrius, Auksius, Auðrys, Àþuolas, Barutis, Birutis, Bûtis, Bûtys, Dainius, Dalius, Bargas, Daugas, Dobilas, Drasutis, Dþiugintas, Eglë, Eimutis, Eitys, Erèius, Erdenis, Gabija, Gailas, Gailius, Galindas, Gaudrys, Gedila, Gedutis, Geidutis, Geistys, Giedrius, Gintas, Girdenis, Girdys, Girdutis, Girstenis, Gytis, Graþys, Gundas, Indrë, Irtys, Jaunius, Jaunutis,Jovas, Kalnius, Kante-nis, Kastytis, Kæstas, Kæstutis, Kintas, Kintenis, Klausas, Labutis, Labys, Laima, Levas, Liauda, Liepa, Linas, Manèius, Mantas, Mantilas, Marius, Medas, Mëta, Miglius, Milda, Milius, Minas, Mintas, Mirga, Neglis, Neringa, Nerius, Nida, Norys, Pajauta, Pame-das, Radys, Ramintas, Ramûnas, Ramutis, Rasa, Rimas, Rimtas, Rytis, Roþë, Rûta, Rûtenis, Rusnë, A morpholexical form of a feminine anthroponym and an opposition of the masculine one has been discovered and is used at the present time, vis. We'll collated over 180,000 surnames using census data, fiction and even prison records. Algirdas (Belarusian: Альгерд, Polish: Olgierd) (c. 1296 – May 1377) was a monarch of medieval Lithuania. surnames. SLOVENIJA - Slovenian Surnames. Vigunt... 1386 pakrikðtytas Krokuvoje Aleksandro vardu... 1388 m. pasiraðë akta Alexander Dei Gratia alias Vigunt Dux name to a person in which act no established name-giving rules were followed and no religious rituals were involved. He also attended ceremonies connected with becoming Christian and was baptized in the Roman Catholic manner and given the name of Alexander. Thus because of a liberal changing of his name by King Vytautas there is no ascertainment of the rituals or the traditions of the giving and the holding of a name system in Lithuanian paganism, interrupted by the circumstantial taking of Christian names by himself and also by his cousins. Polish surnames are known from the Middle Ages, but only 200 years ago did the inherited surnames become compulsory. Digital Dictionary of Surnames in Germany and Atlas of German Family Names. ALAN: English surname derived from the Old Celtic name Alan, which may have the same origin as Irish Gaelic Ailín, from ailín, a diminutive of ail "rock," hence "little rock." Gimstant naujam þmogui jø kasdien kurtasi naujø. Having concluded that pagan Lithuanian personal names were composed freely and applied at random, it is appropriate to make some additional comments on the course of the (3) ...tai dalis dvikamieniø asmenvardþiø paveldëtø ið þilos senovës, paprastai turëjusiø taurià reikðmæ; jais buvo iðsakomi tëvø linkëjimai naujam ðeimos The Medieval Period lasted from the 5th until the 15th century, so names changed over this period. Here’s what you need to know about Polish surnames. and B. Savukynas, (4) and to that selection were added anthroponyms used in part by P. Jonikas in his article in the Lithuanian Encyclopedia. They initially allowed people to differentiate between two people living in the same town or village with the same first name. The giving of a name by the Christian Roman Catholic Church, being a religious sacrament, and therefore the strictness of it as such bears on the minds of persons of that faith. Acheson is a surname, and may refer to:*Carrie Acheson (born 1934), Irish politician *Dean Acheson (1893 1971), American statesman and lawyer *Donald Acheson (b. 55. Alfreds Gaters, a Latvian linguist, in his short article "Die Personennamen in den lettischen Volksmaerchen" (The Personal Names in the Latvian Folk-Tales) vieta, amatas, pravardës... Ið atskiriamøjø prievardþiø, vienur anksèiau, kitur vëliau, yra iðriedëjusios moderninës pavardës... Yra apsèiai ir pravardþiø, vëliau iðvirtusiø pavardëmis." (21) Z. Zinkevièius, Lietuviø dialektologija, Vilnius, 1966, MARIUS m Ancient Roman, Romanian, German, Dutch, Norwegian, Danish, French, Lithuanian. b) The names of the persons of the Lithuanian upper class families and of the most prominent individuals: Goðtautas, Karijotas, Manvydas, Liubartas, Tautvilas, Vykintas, Þymantas, etc. There is a wealth of such material in the medieval records, much of it unexplored. The feminine names have been taken only of the type which have a zero posting in the masculine, contrary to the fact that practically every masculine name in Lithuanian could be used by the feminine gender according to Lithuanian grammar. The concept of the Lithuanian pagan name structure as well as the interpretation of the giving of a name to a person in pagan Lithuania is generally based upon the concept of the ancient Indo-European anthroponymic practice. The recordings of Lithuanian data could have been done in the country itself and in the city of Vilnius, or in the castle of Trakai, or in any other well-developed cultural centre, but it could also have been done in the strongholds of the city of Riga, the castle of Koenigsberg, the castle of Cracow, etc. Poland was ruled at various times either by dukes and princes (10th to 14th centuries) or by kings (11th to 18th centuries). cit., p. 555. It comes from an Old English word meaning “metal worker,” and a variation of it results in Luxembourg’s top surname, Schmit. Beecklund, A., Imena Velikogo Novgoroda, Stockholm, 1959. Indeed, the act happened as a free habit of the giving of a name, depending on the families, groups or generations of people and also depending on the locations and parts of the country where the people lived. Having taken Christian wives the King actually had Christian families and they remained Christian, not being prevented by any adversaries from remaining so, until his death (1377). I-VII (Wroc{l/}aw: Zak{l/}ad Narodowy Imienia Ossoli{n'}skich, Polska Patronymic surnames such as Jansen/Janssen, Hansen, and Petersen are the most common names in the far north (Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). 2000 surnames listed. Tarnovecki, I.I., "Pomianik Horodisce", Names, vol. Jahrhunderts (Basel: Helbing & Lichtenhahn, The Council of Lithuania in its session of February 16, 1918 decided unanimously to address the governments of Russia, Germany, and other states with the following declaration: This understanding is confirmed by the circumstantial fact that the Lithuanian nation received Christianity very late, one of the last nations in Europe to receive it, and received it very slowly, that is, over a period of 400 years, and the receiving of the new religion was yet circumstantially irregular as the clergy did not know the Lithuanian language. Due to immigration from across the Pyrenees, in fact, ‘Garcia‘ is now also the 14th most common surname in France. It's a young country in the sense that it has only been independent since 1990, and while it did have periods of independence before that, Lithuania definitely has a turbulent history. c) The most popular and most frequently used Lithuanian names are the following: Aida, Audrius, Bûtis, Girtas, Dalis, Daudþius, Dobis, Eglë, Eitis, Eitys, Gaidas, Gëdis, Gràþë, Indras, Kæstas, Kintas, Lapas, Linas, Liaudas, Mantas, Milda, Minius, Maþis, Neris, Norius, Putris, Putvis, Rimas, Romas, Rudis, Saulius, Sirtas, Ðarys, Ðviesius, Ðvitrius, Tauèius, Tauras, Tovë, Vitas, Vytas, Þiba, Þilvis, etc., etc. l, p. 21 (Vilnius, 1963). Besides, it has to be determinatively considered as a condition that pagan Lithuania was in general an illiterate country, and the anthroponymical development was functioning exclusively orally. 1, h. 3: Then again further the son of Vincas by the name Antanas 'Anthony' would be called Antanas Vincytis (the patronym Vincytis is son of Vincas) or yet in another variation Antanas Vincytis could be called Vincø Antanas, i.e. anthroponyms, inherited in the deep past, normally containing a noble meaning; in them was expressed 315-316. The giving of the name could be delayed until the time of growing up and the development of the personality of the young individual, and then the name would circumstantially come about. Popular Lithuanian Last Names on FamilyEducation: Adomaitis, … The linguistic trends of ancient times are thus generatively revived and brought up to date by the free and linguistically sound application of the nomenclatural material. You might even find that your Greek ancestry goes beyond Greece by the surname your Greek ancestors adopted. 4. Considering the fact that the pre-Christian Lithuanian anthroponymic nomenclature mostly holds a nickname character the conclusion would follow that in the pre-Christian procedure of the giving of a name to a person in Lithuania there were no established traditions nor strict rules or habits generally practiced. Bellow you will encounter a list of 100 cool last names for guys. (23) LE XV, 556. 1926), British physician *Edward Goodrich Acheson (1856 1931), American chemist and… German Surnames and their Origins. In that time semantically, as it has been shown above, the pavardë 'surname' was normally identical with pravardë 'nickname', and hypothetically the latter term in its usage is as old as the language itself. The first known Polish ruler is Duke Mieszko I who adopted Christianity under the authority of Rome in the year 966. 16. (Algirdas is mentioned later in the article). This ancient surname is recorded in some forty spelling forms. This name generator will give you 10 random names with a title fit for almost any person during the Medieval times. #7 - DAVIS: Means "son of DAVID". (In modern Lithuanian history he is called Vytautas the Great). There is also a revelation that Prince Jogaila, the heir to the throne, had in his childhood the Orthodox name of Jacobus. Lithuanian linguists, A. Salys, P. Jonikas and others, have analysed the origin and the use of patronyms and nicknames, but they did not enter into research in the field of the pagan Lithuanian giving of these We have included in this list surname dictionaries that meet this criterion. German Surnames and their Origins. Encyclopedia Lituanica (various articles in the 5 volumes published so far). 2. Such process implies a change of a name, which process appears best demonstrated by the personal names of the family of Algirdas, ruler of Lithuania in the 14th century. 1, h. 4: isbn: 91-7192-223-7; bd. Anagrams . themselves (Jogaila and Vytautas) was added political #6 - MILLER: Occupational surname referring to a person who owned or worked in a grain mill, from Middle English mille "mill". A last name mainly refers to social status, but can also refer to adjectives and nouns or a mix of them. 9) LE XV, 556. tautos senovëje vadinosi vienais asmenvardþiais, pavardës vëliau iðriedëjo ið asmenvardþiø... Saugas, Saulius, Sigutë, Sirtas, Skalvis, Skiras, Sniegà, Ðarys, Ðarûnas, Ðviedrys, Ðviesius, Ðvitrys, Tarvas, Tauèius, Tauras, Tautas, Teisutis, Tovë, Ugnius, Uosis, Vaidas, Vaidenis, Vaidilas, Vidas, Vydas, Vydenis, Vilija, Viltenis, Viltë, Vytas, Vytenis, Þemyna, Þibutë, Þilvinas, Þinius. The Medieval Period lasted from the 5th until the 15th century, so names changed over this period. 11/21/97. The case of the christening and holding of the names by the members of the family of Lithuanian King Algirdas becomes a problem, the interpretation of which is given later in the section on King The feminine terminology of the Lithuanian anthropo-nymics creates its own anthroponymic field, which Talmont (surname). Personal Names, vol. He and Queen Ona were remarried in a Western marriage ceremony. Lebedys, J., "Seniausias lietuviø rankraðtinis tekstas". Lithuanian form of MARIUS. Italian Names & the History of Names - Many links to information on Italian names. Medieval name generator . linguistically in general could be taken as an exception. (17) Donum Balticum, 130, Stockholm, 1970. A. Salys's logic inadvertently coincides with the logic of the giving of a name in the Christian religion, particularly in the Roman Catholic, where a ritual has to be fulfilled, i.e., the infant has to be christened as soon as possible after its birth. (13) H. Mortensen, Deutschland und der Osten, Leipzig, 1937. 1. The anthroponymic research of the pre-Christian Lithuanian giving of a name is a work that has to be continued. lygmuo, jame ákûnyta pati þmogaus esmë. It is further understood that the term pavardë has been invented when the Christian name appeared as the first name, therefore pavardë functions as another name, i.e. The conclusion to that is that Christianity in Lithuania had actually no ancient Lithuanian cultural giving of a name tradition to contest and did not have to conquer one, which reality indeed conditioned the process of the introduction of the new religion. And it also tends to prove the rule that no rigid system or ritual of the giving of the name was established in pagan Lithuania and the nomenclature has indeed been a casual one and it has been free rather than dependent on definitely established categories. 1, The logic of A. Salys's statement definitely points out that the giving of a name means the giving of it to an infant to "determine his fate". "vicarius Lithuaniae eiusdemque nacionis et linguae." Jonas Lebedys, Lituanistikai Baruose, Vilnius, 1972, p. 21. Algirdas: Algis-Algë, Gediminas: Godis-Gedë, Këstutis: Kæstas-Kæstë, etc. a) The names of the Lithuanian Kings and Princes:Al-girdas, Gediminas, Kæstutis, (kæs- 'kæsti' to bear, -gaila 'galia' might, power) as: Kesgaylo, In Europe, many of today’s surnames stem from a medieval profession. The seven sons later, politically and diplomatically, took pagan names (see them listed farther on in the text), though they were re-christened in Cracow in 1386, in the Roman Catholic manner. The practice became a factual one when after taking the Christian name the pagan one remained with a person in his everyday life, or the person retained his pre-Christian name for the customary social, traditional and official needs, and ultimately the previous vardas became one's pavardë 'surname'. tautos; tëvai, duodami vaikui vardà, juo iðsako savo viltis ir linkëjimus. According to the Old Testament, Noah was the builder of the Ark that allowed ... #2 - LIAM m : Irish short form of WILLIAM. LEGACY OF MEDIEVAL LITHUANIA . The Prussian anthropo-nyms survived in the personal names of a few escapees and in the anthroponyms transferred to toponyms which have been collected by recent German scholars. All pages with titles ... More info. Although we do not arrive at the solution of the problem of what was the system of the pre-Christian Lithuanian giving of a name, the above quotation of Alfreds Gaters suggests that the material of the primitive nomenclature contained data caused by various contrasting events and unknown circumstances. nariui, tikint magiðka vardo galia, galinèia veikti vaiko likimà. The surname is usually recorded in most dictionaries of surnames as being… Karijotas of Lithuania was born circa 1314 to Gediminas (c1275-1341) and Jewna of Polotsk (c1280-c1344) and died circa 1361 of unspecified causes. The Lithuanian pre-Christian nomenclature contains such names given to and borne by the Lithuanian Kings and the individuals who were in high positions in the state. There are many nicknames which later became surnames." If the Christianity brought to the Baltic countries by the Germans was accompanied by destruction and death, so also to the Christianity brought from Poland by the Lithuanians remained pagan, and the Christian nomenclature functioned as an additional element, used for the Catholic Lithuanians in the position of the first name, of which in due time numerous Christian patronyms had developed and were used in the position of the surname. 15. It should be very easy now to recognize the specific individual if we refer towards their surname or last name. 91-7402-136-2, h. 8: isbn: 91-7402-115-x; bd. surnames derive from medieval bynames, though they have often changed form Polish surnames are known from the Middle Ages, but only 200 years ago did the inherited surnames become compulsory. Numerous surnames based on the Hebrew language were created in Lithuania, Vitebsk guberniya and Volhynia. Ancestors are from Lithuania, Belarus. The need of the process of inventing a nickname might have been for multiple reasons: first, when a person had no established and no socially accepted The most common Polish names Nowak, Nowakowski, Nowacki, and Nowicki are variants meaning new, Przybyszewski and Przybylski mean he who has arrived. The rule of Lithuanian grammar would be working there are as many derivative patronyms of one and the same name as there are patronymic suffixes in The word itself is hardly used any more in anybody's active vocabulary, but it survives as a surname. The pravardþiavimas 'nicknaming' might have been a predominant system and thus the basis of the name-giving. 13. 200 Common Jewish Last Names Or Surnames With Meanings. 13. (Vincø is the genetive plural of Vincas). The authors selected 2000 entries, lexically and ethmologically explained and equipped with the new material of the feminine anthropo-nyms (masc.-fem. Thus, A. Salys states: "...all the personal names derive from the appellatives. producing of a name or of inventing one, and applying it to the person concerned. ministeris 'cabinet minister', burmistras 'mayor', karininkas 'army officer' are practically always men, no feminine form in these appellatives is used. XV, pp. Kuzavinis. Lithuania is a country in northeastern Europe with a population of roughly 3 million people. 17. Many of us have surnames passed down to us from ancestors in England. cit., XXIII, 507; further referred to as LE. P.Jonikas, LE XV, 559. the giving of the name to a person in pre-Christian Lithuanian has been free of any rules and ceremonies such as were developed in post-pagan centuries. Most modern surnames derive from medieval bynames, though they have often changed form or spelling in the intervening centuries. Jon-el-aitis, Jon-yn-enas, Jon-el-yn-aitis, etc. The language could have been Latin or German, and the orthography Latin or Gothic. 12th and 13th Centuries), Witold Taszycki (ed. Differences from the Lithuanian version: Red - additions in German text only; Green - different word or surname order only in German version. It has already been referred to above that the Lithuanian patronyms morphemically expand in large numbers because of the great variety of the patronymic suffixes in the Standard Lithuanian, those diminutive, 'endearing, pejorative and the like. (7) A confusing fact and very characteristic of pagan Lithuanian name writing in medieval documents is the name of Prince the same patronymic structure but a feminine inflectional suffix ending in ë (masc. This change leads into another one, namely, into the use of patronyms and nicknames. (7) A confusing fact and very characteristic of pagan Lithuanian name writing in medieval documents is the name of Prince Vygantas, son of King Algirdas. Claims have been made that it is a dialectal variant of the surname Morris, originally an English form of the French personal name Maurice , or its … Surnames reference The name corresponded to the person, and human essence was expressed in it. Morphemically those derivatives are conceivable, however, practically they would be rare. Prancisvilcians). It would be appropriate here to point out that at the present time in Lithuania (now under Russian totalitarian occupation) the terminology in linguistics tends to ( LE vol. Click Here to listen to the podcast. Gone are the days of leafing through the phone book, these days you can find surname inspiration online. Ansas, Juonis, Peteris, Juris, etc. The terminology of Lithuanian onomastics is obviously very limited, and is based mostly on the translation of the international terminology, e.g. (Etymological Dictionary of German Family Names), Adolf Socin, Mittelhochdeutsches Namenbuch. a person had his vardas when he was christened; the pagan, the pre-Christian Lithuanian national nebepakako, todël asmenvardþiams imta dëti deterrninatyvai tëvavardþiai, kilimo arba gyvenamoji Bet kas didesniu yra tarp jūsų, testo kaip… Considering the fact that in ancient times only one single personal name was used, and such practice in Lithuanian has been generally held in pre-Christian times (until XIII century A.D.), therefore obviously the concept of a surname was not used at all, and the term pavardë 'surname' was not known. The Substance and Application of a Person's Name. duties for ruling various region of the List of the Most Common Surnames starting with "Y" in the U.S. The formal documents, of course, disregard the anthroponym prievardis, the patronym of a personal name, and would use the second name (the surname) only; Vincas Baltis, Antanas Baltis, etc. When King Vytautas was in Germany with Queen Ona in 1382, he was baptized and given the German name Wiegund (Vygandas). If those Medieval English Baby Names - MomJunctions' exhaustive collection of modern, unique and cute Medieval English baby names with their meanings and religion. The best studies of surnames trace them back to their origins and give early, dated examples. linguae. #5 - JONES: Derived from the given name Jon, a medieval variant of JOHN. I, p. 201 ff. 9. Last names are often derived from occupation, location, and nicknames. Safarewicz, J., "Litewskie nazwy niejscowe na -iszki", Onomastica II, 1956. (Nevertheless, their pagan names prevailed, and paganism was alive in Lithuania for several Most Romanian surnames are derived from the language although there is an influence of other European languages too. In some instances a grown-up son might be called by the full formal name of his father: Algirdas (not Algirdaitis); no such formality would ever be applied in the case of a grown-up daughter. Darybos atþvilgiu pravardë... sutinka su daiktavardþiu vardas, veiksmaþodþiu vardyti, vardà The ancient people believed that a name given to an infant could determine his fate. Surnames or family names are the part of a person’s name that is passed down through families, or given according to law or custom. The mistakes were obvious. 6, The foreign scribes could be considered as not reliable because they did not acquire any knowledge of the Lithuanian language which was especially indispensable in recording the Lithuanian anthroponymic data. The meaning of the name given to the new member of society by the parents expressed their hopes and wishes. Algirdas-Algirdë, the contemporary Lithuanian onomasticists have offered some innovations, featured in the work of B. Savukynas and K. Taking another circumstance, the grand and noble, thoughtfully and elaborately composed names would not be convenient, practically speaking, to use in everyday life and therefore the automatic structures of abbreviations of the multisyllabic names have had to be used: Algimantas-Algis, Gedgaudas-Gaudis, Manigirdas-Manius, Radvilas-Radvis, Þygimantas-Þygius etc., not excluding obvious incidentals of nicknames, allnames and various add-names which were also used: Augius—for a tall one, Baldþius, for a noisy one, Burba—for a talkative one, Greièius—for a quick and fast one, Klinka—for a shrieking one, Maþius for a small one etc. 19 and also with the understanding of Miss Þ. Urbanvièiûtë and Miss L. Þièkutë This understanding is in opposition to the interpretation of the significance and the mysticism of the noble pagan names as emphasized by A. Salys and P. Jonikas, (see 1 above). Some names having acquired an adverse reputation (Jogaila) and the names of derisory or jocular meaning (Traidenis, Sirputa, Svilenis) were never popular and are never included in the generally applicable and used nomenclature. Recorded as Dart, Darte, Darthe, Death, Dearth and possibly others, this is an English surname of two possible origins.The most likely is French as shown below, but recent research has also strongly indicated an English source which may have been "overlooked" in the past possibly because of its rather mordid conclusions. 15. this criterion. Algirdas—Atgirdaitis, Skirgaila,—Skirgailaitis, Þygimantas—Þygimantaitis, etc. Recorded in over two hundred spelling forms including Rose of England, Flanders, and Germany, Larose and Roz of France, Ross of Scotland, Royce, Roset, and Rising of England, Rosa and Rosi of Italy and Spain, Rosone and Rosetti of Italy, Rosanski Layout, editting, and publishing by In Lithuania, these surnames are mainly occupational: Soifer (scribe), Dayen (judge), Melamed (teacher) and Khait (tailor). Italian Names & the History of Names - Many links to information on Italian names. Tavo šventas angelas testo su manimi Vln36. Lithuanian farm workers were recruited to work in Scotland by agents who were sent to Lithuania by Scottish coal and iron companies.

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